Past to Paper: Debunking the Australian Myth

Welcome back to Past to Paper! If you’ve been keeping up with this feature then I owe you an apology once again for not having one up in October. But the important thing is that I’m back now and with an exciting topic that’s close to my heart. Today, we’re going to be looking at Australian history through stereotypes and colonisation.

Esperance, WA: http://www.spoolphotography.com

Past to Paper is a monthly feature on Upside-Down Books run by a young, Australian history buff. History can be an intimidating topic for many and knowledge of the past is severely limited for the majority. This features aims to make history fun, spark interest, and increase awareness of the past and how it could be brought to paper in an enjoyable way other than the sometimes unapproachable genre of Historical Fiction. It’s time to learn.

There are obviously many facets to Australian history, as with any country. For the most part, the most commonly covered era is that of the country’s involvement in the World Wars and maybe the occasional contemporary setting. However, Australian history is almost non-existent in mainstream literature which is a crying shame.

Cottesloe, WA: http://www.stevebackart.com

Now, this will absolutely be a topic that I revisit with specifics, but today we’re going to look at stereotypes about the country and its history of colonisation. I always find it surprising when I realise just how little quite a lot of non-Australians know about this amazing country. Sometimes it feels like Australia is that awkward third member of the party that’s trying so hard to get in on the game but the UK and the USA ain’t got time for us. Here’s a scene from a party that the countries attended that I absolutely did not just make up:

US: Heey, England! What’s up?
UK: Whoa-ho, good. Pretty good, pretty good. Been having a few troubles with my other half though, *nods sadly*.
US: Oh really? Which . . . half? Ireland? Scotland? Wales?
UK: Wales? Oh them. No, no. Scotland again.
Australia: HEY GUYS I’VE ARRIVED.
*UK & US blink*
Australia: Soo, what you been up to? Haven’t seen you for ages! Your letters must have gotten lost in the post.
US: Letters? But we didn’t – you have post boxes?
*UK elbows US*
US: I mean, yes. Silly postal service.
France: Oh hey there UK, *winks*.
UK: *shivers*
Australia: Hey, France!
*France leaves*
Australia: *frowns*
*UK and US go back to conversation*
*New Zealand walks up*
NZ: *makes strange noises* [translation = Hey mate, don’t you worry. We’re right here for you.]
Australia: Thanks bro. Hey maybe we should have our own little party with China or someone.

Anyway. Let’s end that right there. We’re going to look at two things for Australia today (because I can’t bloody do everything in one post, don’t get your knickers in a twist):

  1. Australian Stereotypes.
  2. The Colonisation of Australia

The point being: today! I’m going to take you on an adventure to explore what Australia actually is and why we should be taking advantage of this setting more often because YES! Today, we will see why Australia is a way cooler setting than America in most situations, *throws gauntlet down*. Bite me. We also have an absolutely horrible history between settlers and Aboriginal Australians which is so hard to come by in literature – especially if you’re not Australian. But it’s definitely something that should be talked about.

Australian Beach Sunset: https://myexpressions.com.au

Lastly, before we get into this. Please, PLEASE – if you have any questions at all about Australian history or would like me to do a Past to Paper on a specific topic you’d like to know more about, don’t hesitate to let me know! Australia, being my backyard, is a history I like to talk about until the cows come home. Just let me know in the comments below, on Twitter (ozbooksnail), on Instagram (ozbooksnail) – or head over to my Contact page and find my e-mail there.


 COUNTRY PROFILE

Name: Australia
Founded: 26th January 1788
Government: Federal Monarchy, Constitutional Monarchy, Parliamentary System
Prime Minister (as of 11/16): Malcolm Turnbull
Queen: Elizabeth II
World Wonder: Sydney Opera House
Population: 24.2 million
Flag:


So, You Don’t Ride Kangaroos?

Let us start off with some myths and legends. No, we don’t ride kangaroos. It is quite impossible to do so – in fact, if you’re asking this question I wonder if you’ve ever seen a kangaroo. They’re tall, very bouncy, and I wouldn’t touch one with a ten foot pole (except for the cute ones in the zoo). We walk, we have taxis, we have trains, and we have buses, and praise the king of chocolate, we love our cars. Kangaroos are very strong animals: if you get in one’s way if could easily kill you. Here’s a video of kangaroos fighting:

Secondly, drop bears are real. No, I’m just kidding. For the sake of keeping your trust allow me to direct you to Google: “A drop bear (sometimes dropbear) is a hoax in contemporary Australian folklore featuring a predatory, carnivorous version of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). This imaginary animal is commonly spoken about in tall tales designed to scare tourists.”. We’re a very mean group of people but hey, you try living on the fringes of the world. Got to make up your own fun out here.

Australia Geographic (yep, they have a page about Drop Bears): http://www.australiangeographic.com.au

Thirdly, we do have houses. This might genuinely shock some of you. Sometimes people get confused when they see pictures of Sydney or Margaret River and notice that not only can we also have normal houses but we have some green vegetation too. Just, not much. But we don’t (all) live in the desert – most of Australia’s population lives on the coast where the weather is bearable and you can, you know, grow food and stuff.

Margaret River, Western Australia: http://www.margaretriver.com

Our wildlife will kill you. This one is true, unfortunately. But we’re secretly proud about this – we like to scare the willies out of people by reminding them often of the dangers we face each day. That makes plots, such as that in The Light Between Oceans where a character dies from a snake bite a picnic, entirely believable because yeah – snakes are a real danger here. We might try to be brave around tourists, but secretly we scream each time we find a spider in our house.

Gould’s Goanna, this one isn’t a dangerous animal – they’re too scary to photograph (google: Sydney Funnel Web): http://www.australia.com

Everyone laughs at this “shrimp on the barbie” phrase. Truth be told, I don’t believe the rest of the country when they deny that the population has a fascination with seafood. You should see fishmongers at Christmas – prawns become gold dust because people eat prawns, not Turkey, at Christmas here. Being born in England to British parents means that at my house at Christmas time, we will eat that damn Turkey even if it is 45 degrees outside. #AnythingForChristmas

Christmas in Australia: http://www.agfg.com.au

Vegemite. I hate the stuff – and I fully expect to be assaulted by my fellow aussies for saying those sinful words. People are obsessed with it. You might be aware that I’m going to America for six months next year? Yes? Well, the Australians coming with me have had multiple discussions on how best to stock up on Vegemite so that they survive their time away from the motherland.

Vegemite: http://www.news.com.au

And lastly, we take great pleasure on messing with tourists (as you might have noticed with the whole drop bear thing). We will speak louder, sink into our accents until we’re positively bogan, use an unnecessary amount of slang, and make you feel uncomfortable by referring to the fact that we wear thongs (flip-flops) all the time. So I guess we don’t help ourselves on the stereotypes front but geez it’s fun.

Echidna: http://www.australia.com

The States (because we have those too)

Now, onto our next adventure in the land of spiders. Australia is a very diverse country. So I want to show your the geography and where colonisation happened – the amazing spread of Aboriginal Australians throughout the land before colonists messed everything up. This country is incredible but we cannot forget the injustices on which our country began.

Map of Australia by States: http://www.mapsofworld.com

There are six states in Australia and two territories (I don’t really get the difference either) – think of them as little countries. If you’re getting really picky there are a few more like Christmas Island and the bit of Antarctica that’s our’s, but hush. Western Australia is quite clearly the biggest (and best) and the smallest is the ACT. See that red square where it says Canberra? Yeah, our parliament basically created it’s own state (it’s really boring there.) The states are:

Western Australia

Queensland

Victoria

Tasmania

New South Wales

South Australia

Australian Capital Territory

Northern Territory

Clearly the world has a flag-making obsession. There are different flags for just about everything. Sheesh. Ahem. Throughout these states and territories there are a bunch of different terrains. You’ve seen about the beautiful Margaret River, but there are deserts too, ten to be exact. There are beaches, there is urban sprawl, and there are shrub lands and wooded areas. We do also have a couple of mountains. Not to mention the magnificent Uluru.

Uluru: http://www.medibank.com.au

There are so many potential settings out there. How someone hasn’t written a fantasy book where a band of characters fight magically enhanced Australian animals as they make their way across the country, I do not know. Despite these harsh climates towards the centre of the continent however, Aboriginal communities have lived there for thousands upon thousands of years. Which is pretty admirable if you ask me.

The Simpson Desert: http://www.emaze.com

My favourite thing about Australia though, is looking at the map of the Australian Aboriginal lands. I would love to travel back in time and see each and every different group and see how different their lives were. The indigenous history of Australia is actually really  quite cool and it’s an absolutely tragedy with how much of their culture was lost.

Australian Aboriginal Map: http://www.indigenousinstyle.com.au

History: We’re Older than You 

To backtrack quickly, before colonialists came the indigenous people of Australia lived right across the continent and had a variety of traditions and beliefs. Archeological evidence suggests that they have inhabited the country for at last 40,000 years. Which is a very long time.

Perth, WA: http:/international.curtin.edu.au

The Aboriginal people have an important connection to the land as they view is as it is that which is sustained  by and sustains the people. Seeing as land was one of the things that colonialists took from them, that causes multitudes of problems as buildings have been constructed on sacred sights or places such as Uluru were climbable until recently – when the Australian government finally recognised it as their land and therefore their right.

Australian Aborigines were semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers and they lived in a variety of different territories successfully, including the deserts. We can’t limit this definition of indigenous Australians just to Aborigines, however, as there are also the Torres Straight Islanders.

Broome, WA: http://broomeair.com.au

When Europeans arrived, it has been estimated that there were over 600 different clans or nations around the continent. Each identified through their land areas, their language, their relationship to others and their stories. Aboriginal history is an oral history in this sense. Hundreds of languages and dialects exist but many are now extinct.

The oral history is called the Dreaming, which I think is beautiful. Imagine if your history had such a lovely name. Their creation story is amazingly not too different from the basics of the one told by many other cultures – such as Christians and Norse Mythology, as two examples. It goes something like this:

Their ancestor spirits came to earth in human form and created animals, plants, rocks, and other forms of the land. They created relationships between different grounds and between individuals and the land, animals and other people. Once this creation was done, they changed into trees, stars, rocks, watering holes and so on. These are the sacred places of the Aboriginal culture.

The Dreaming, therefore, is never-ending because the ancestors never actually disappeared. This means there’s a vibrant link between the past and present and the people and the land. In this way, all that is sacred is the land and knowledge of these sacred sites is learnt through initiation. It’s not ‘public knowledge’. This means that in modern times, there are most likely plenty of sacred sites only known to the Aboriginal people as it is only discussed if it is threatened, such as Uluru (returned to its traditional owners only in 1985!)

The tools and weapons used by the Aboriginal people vary depending on their location: so fishbone for the coastal areas or stone for for desert tribes. According to the Australian Government’s article, “Australian Indigenous cultural heritage”, the Aborigines were the first people in the world to introduce ground edge on cutting tools and also the first to grind seed.

Koala: http://www.australia.com

You might be familiar of images of Aborigines ready for ceremonial performances. These are at the core of their cultural life. There are songs for every occasion and these are exchanged at ceremonial gatherings where goods might also be exchanged. The Corroboree is the dance ceremony where the Aborigines connect to the Dreamtime.

Lastly, the artwork of the Aboriginal people is magnificent. Their dot paintings are relatively famous and if you haven’t a clue what I’m talking about then look up Australian Aboriginal Dot Paintings and be wowed. Most importantly, however, the surviving artwork reflects the immense diversity of the Aboriginal people.

The Sydney Opera House: http://www.princess.com

So Australia goes back a long way with a magnificent history and interconnectedness of its indigenous peoples to the land and animals. But tell me, have you ever read an ancient history fiction novel set in Australia?

Info from: http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-indigenous-cultural-heritage

 Colonisation

History then gets dark when Europeans arrived on the shores of Australia. This is as far as I’m going to explore today but it goes without saying that tensions still run rife today between indigenous peoples and everyone else. Conflicts between land rights, the need to apologise, and the demand for respect, are things that are trailing sorely behind the state of affairs. Walking around any Australian city, you’ll notice on many an old monument a more modern plaque added on to acknowledge the Aboriginal people – such as ones involving the death of Europeans, these might say “we acknowledge the right of indigenous Australians to defend their land”. It’s a political mess.

Crocodile: http://www.outback-australia-travel-secrets.com

But back to colonisation. Back in the 17th century, what is now called Australia was referred to as Terra Australis Incognito (= unknown southern land. #Inventive). There were an estimated 54 European ships between the time of 1606 – 1770 that ventured to this land of southerness and dipped a toe in its waters. Most of these were from the famous Dutch East Indies Company (a company for spices, etc, around Indonesia).

Any Australian will know the name of Lieutenant James Cook who, in 1770 upon his ship Endeavour claimed part of the east coast on behalf of King George III of England. This is New South Wales.

The Twelve Apostles: http://www.theshortcollection.com.au

However! It was Captain Arthur Phillip and The First Fleet who actually colonised the country. He brought over 1,300 people with him at Botany Bay. And we still sing sailor shanties about good ol’ Botany bay. Many of the people that came here were convicts – England’s jails (or should I said, gaols) were getting to full so send them off to the other side of the world!  said the king. And they did.

They didn’t do a very good job of settling, however. You might have noticed previously in this post that Australia is a hot country (I mean, not to boast, but TEN deserts? *brushes dirt of shoulders*). Ahem. So yes, they did a bad job and ended up relying on trading food with Aborigines for the most part.

Cockatoo: http://www.kotaku.com.au

Then a second fleet arrived and brought fresh supplies – but the convicts were ill and it has literally been called the “Death Fleet” because over 200 on the fleet died. Anyway, and so on and so forth. Fleets arrive, people die, farming proves tricky. Official verdict? Australia is definitely not England.

A trade relationship between Aboriginals and colonisers went okay, for a little bit. But then the Aborigines worked out that the Europeans were, in fact, ruining everything by their presence and massive drain on resources. They brought diseases, they brought people who didn’t respect the indigenous or their land, and that’s usually a bad recipe. I feel like Americans will understand this part of the story well (talk about history repeating itself). Mostly, this resulted in various attacks on colonisers.

Australian Outback: http://actionpsychology.com

Government in Australia didn’t really start to be something until 1823 in NSW – prior to this that colony had been a penal colony, so one for convicts. The Federation began in 1901. Now, you must take me seriously here: there was a treaty made called the Batman Treaty. This happened in 1835 by a guy called John Batman to deal with land ownership for Indigenous people, *raises eyebrows skeptically*. See, now this was a problem because it meant that colonisers had to respect property of a people who they saw as barely human. So, what did they do?

A guy called Sir Richard Bourke makes a proclamation to say that, in fact, the land belong to no-one before the Crown stuck a flag in it. Boom. Easy. Free land for colonisers. Therefore, anyone found in possession of land without the crown’s blessing would be exiled to Siberia (okay, not Siberia, but you get the gist).

Frilled Neck Lizard: http://www.touringaustralia.de

Want to know the really sad part? Despite people knowing and trying to recognise that the Aborigines had land rights, government mostly stuck to this proclamation . . . until 1992. Yep. 1992.

Other settlements:

Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) was settled in 1803 by John Bowen. It became officially known as Tasmania in 1856.

Western Australia was established in 1827 by Major Edmund Lockyer and the Swan River Colony was proclaimed in 1829.

South Australia was 1836 and became a British colony in 1842.

Victoria was 1803 by Lieutenant David Collins (although he chickened out and moved to Tassie because Tasmania actually gets rain sometimes). Oh, and Mr. Batman settled in Vic, too.

Queensland was 1824 by Lieutenant John Oxley.

The Northern Territory was 1825 and initially a part of the NSW colony. It’s capital, Darwin (it has scary crocodiles) was established in 1869.

The impact of this on the Indigenous people was dreadful. The combination of the introduction of new diseases, acquisition of lands and violent conflicts saw the native population spiral downwards dramatically. Later, the event now known as the “Stolen Generation” occurred which was even more traumatic. The estimated population decline between 1788 to 1900 according to Australians Together was a 90% reduction.

The Great Barrier Reef: http://www.markgray.com.au

The Stolen Generation was the forceful removal/abduction of Aboriginal children from their families to bring them up in the European way which was seen as civilised compared the barbarous ways of the Indigenous peoples. Not that they would have the same rights or opportunities, of course. Obviously this was codswallop and has broken up families, cultures and relationships over generations and is a prevalent issues today in Australia.

The Australians at the time were content to let the Aborigines die out because that would be easiest for them. But they didn’t, thank god. Even after numerous horrific assimilation attempts (such as the belief that if you interbred Aborigines and Europeans eventually their physical appearance would be washed out) their culture still stands proud and forms an essential part of Australia’s history.

Dingo: http://animal-picture.com
Statistics sourced from: http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/european-discovery-and-colonisation

Australian History in Literature

What I would love to see is this history on paper. I live in Australia and I find it difficult to find Australian history incorporated into stories. There are plenty of dry historical fiction and non-fiction books out there that do face this, but I think a residual guilt and a lack of desire to touch this sensitive topic has left it in a dark corner when in reality it should be spoken about.

Genres I Want to See This In:

Dystopia
This is straight-up and easy choice. The history is already fairly dystopian but I think if a fiction author were to incorporate this with a sci-fi element they could make a cracker of a story and drive a really poignant point home.

Contemporary
There are plenty of stories out there waiting to be told. It would be so easy to write books like the popular ones at the moment (i.e. Holding up the Universe, even Fangirl) but have it focussed on Aboriginal Australians in contemporary society and the difficulty of balancing lifestyles.

Fantasy
Like I said: where’s my expedition across the country fighting off fearsome Australian animals? Fire-breathing Frilled Neck Lizards! Laser-Eyed Kangaroos! Giant Spiders! Wait. . . that one’s been done – Giant Thorny Devils (these ones are particularly cool)! Wouldn’t it be marvellous to make an epic ancient history fantasy story following an Aboriginal protagonist battling against the odds?

Retelling
Now I realise this would be tricky if you were to do a retelling of the Dreamtime story, that could, and probably would be, offensive. By I’d love to see a fictitious representation of their creation story. Or, maybe a retelling of history – alternate history – where something did or didn’t happen.


 Examples of Books

There are a good few books set in Australia, but very few who look at its history – of any kind. Here are a few I’ve rustled up.

The Secret River by Kate Grenville

No Sugar by Jack Davis

The Narrow Road to the Deep North by Richard Flanagan

The Light Between Oceans by M. L. Stedman

Picnic at Hanging Rock by Joan Lindsay


 Fin!

I applaud you, good sir or madam, if you made it to the end. That was a very, very long discussion. I hope you enjoyed reading it as much as I enjoyed making it – and I hope that you learnt something new! Let me know if you know of any good, interesting, and lively historical fiction books for Australia! And don’t be shy to ask any questions. I’ll see you again next month!


Next Month:

Deserted Fantasy: The Middle East

Missed last Month?

What Happened to Southern Africa?


End Note

~~ Kirstie ~~

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21 thoughts on “Past to Paper: Debunking the Australian Myth

  1. Wow!!! What an amazing post!! It always makes me sad that Australia is always kind of overlooked. We have some of the most beautiful scenery and creatures in the world. I think perhaps we have shot ourselves in the foot when it comes to tourism, us Aussies really take pride in the fact that we have some of the most dangerous animals in the world lol.

    To be honest I haven’t read many Australian books…apart from Bryce Courteney. I think I need to make a goal of reading more, I am always interested in learning more about our history. We have a sad history when it comes to our native Australians, and there are many things that we need to work on…but I honestly believe we have one of the best countries in the world 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Hear! Hear! I definitely need to make more of an enough too in reading Australian authors – even if their book isn’t set in aus. I’m actually read the funniest book at the moment called The Dalai Lama’s Cat. It’s by a Perthian and it’s absolutely hilarious – it’s basically just telling you about the Dalai Lama but from the cat’s perspective XD

      Just imagining the road tripping stories we could have set here! They’d be amazing. If you look up Australian wildlife (as I did for some of the photos) so many of the pages that come up are either “Will I Die if I Go to Australia” or “Which Australian Animals Won’t Kill You”. I laughed XD

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Oh I think I have heard of The Dalai Lama’s Cat…it actually really sounds like something I would read, so I am going to add it to my TBR list. Hahaha I will have to have a look at those pages. It’s funny that people would think that they will die if they come here. Actually, is there an Australian animal that won’t kill you? I need to find that out now haha.

        Liked by 1 person

  2. I would love to see more Australia, too! The US is so boring and repetitive. I’d also like to see more Canada, because to most of the world, we are just the same as the US and we aren’t! I’m sure New Zealand feels similar! Canada also has a history of residential schools (our Stolen Generation) for which we are still trying to come to terms with/apologise for/pay the victims reparations for.

    Liked by 1 person

      1. I would read that in a heartbeat! There is only one book that is fairly mainstream that I know is set in Canada, Anne of Green Gables. Then there is a recent YA release that has some minimal talk, Shooter. That’s it unless you go into the weird Canada Lit books.

        Liked by 1 person

  3. This is a really great post! I believe that NT and ACT are territories and not states is due to the fact they were formed after Federation – NT was a part of SA at Federation, but then was separated to become its own territory which was under the Commonwealth government’s control. ACT was formed I believe for the sole reason of needing a capital state LOL.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Aw thank you! And yes it does seem to go something like that – the government website had a very long winded explanation for it 🙈 people do like to make things confusing by classifying them as specifically as they can! I always feel sorry for the NT, they didn’t get a very inventive name 😂

      Liked by 1 person

      1. Then again, none of the colony names are very inventive either – New South Wales (literally what it means), Victoria (named after the queen at that point), etc. I guess they got lazy? LOL

        Like

  4. My uncle and his family live in Australia and recently when he came down to India to visit us he brought me an Aboriginal dot painting tote bag. I’m not sure if it was done by Aboriginal people and sold by them or if a big company is just promoting this for tourism but it’s so absolutely beautiful and it’s my new favourite shopping bag. This was such an interesting post and damn them drop bears….

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Eek! I just love this feature 🙂

    I must admit, before this post I knew absolutely NOTHING about Australia’s history. It just isn’t something they teach in American schools unfortunately.

    “Sometimes it feels like Australia is that awkward third member of the party that’s trying so hard to get in on the game but the UK and the USA ain’t got time for us.”

    It really isn’t funny but I laughed out loud at this one.

    “But tell me, have you ever read an ancient history fiction novel set in Australia?”

    Nope! Such a shame…

    “A trade relationship between Aboriginals and colonizers went okay, for a little bit. But then the Aborigines worked out that the Europeans were, in fact, ruining everything by their presence and massive drain on resources. They brought diseases, they brought people who didn’t respect the indigenous or their land, and that’s usually a bad recipe. I feel like Americans will understand this part of the story well (talk about history repeating itself). Mostly, this resulted in various attacks on colonizers.”

    Yup. Been there, done that.

    “The Stolen Generation was the forceful removal/abduction of Aboriginal children from their families to bring them up in the European way which was seen as civilized compared the barbarous ways of the Indigenous peoples.”

    That is horrible!

    LOVED learning more about your home land! I will be looking forward to your post on the middle east!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Haha I’m glad you liked it!! It’s such a shame that we can’t learn absolutely everything of ever about history at school (well, I think so) but I guess that makes it exciting to research things in the future!

      #ThirdWheelForever 😂😂

      I’m looking forward to writing it!! Let’s hope it doesn’t disappoint 🙊🙊

      Liked by 1 person

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